Cytokines can affect their host cells (autocrine), neighbouring cells (paracrine), or in some cases distant (endocrine) cells. They are characterized by a significant advantage that when a single cytokine is measured, important aspects of reaction development can be overlooked.
In addition, cascading of normal cytokines can be more easily observed when these protein clusters are measured simultaneously, leading to a better understanding of the disease process and subsequent treatment. This is becoming increasingly desirable in laboratory medicine. You can get full information on laboratory medicine at https://www.bosterbio.com/services/assay-services/elisa-testing-service.
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The concept that a single molecule could have many different biological activities was viewed with scepticism at first, but the emergence of molecular cloning of cDNA cytokines and the subsequent formulation of recombinant forms has cast doubt. With this instrument, cytokine research has made rapid progress and exposes it to a multifunctional biological agent in a wide variety of human conditions.
Recombinant cytokines also provide antigens for antibody production, resulting in rapid antigen count using ELISA or ELISA-based technologies such as biochip array technology.
Microbial disease stimulates the release of various cytokines that exercise various mechanisms to resist invasion. For instance, reactive oxygen species are produced to aid phagocyte-mediated killing, cells migrate to the site of infection, and coagulation is promoted. At the same time, additional cytokines support dendritic cells in presenting antigens to microbes, leading to the production of neutralizing antibodies.